A third fascinating paper presented at the July 2014, Paris, GEIPAN workshop was titled "UAP photo/video Authentication and Analysis." It was authored by Francois Lounge, Antoine Cousyn, click here; and Geoff Quick, click here.
The authors propose that the first step is to determine if the image is an "authentic original." They provide definitions for both silver and digital photography. They then suggest a check of associated tags and markers; then a comparison with a technical camera database.
Identification of an artifact:
Is the image an external stimulus? Does it arise from lenses; on the photosensitive sensor or in the encoding process of the image file? Is it a fake or image montage?
Analysis and mensuration:
If there was an external stimulus, can it be linked to a material object or a "purely luminous phenomenon?" If it cannot be identified can we determine such things as "...distance from the camera; size; velocity; acceleration; color, energy..."
Tools for specificities of video:
Analysis of a video series of images can include flexible visualization, further image analysis, and frame de-interlacing.
Co-author Lounge has developed software (IPACO) to provide "...the UAP photo/video analyst with an easy-to-use dedicated tool which fulfils most of the requirements for in-depth investigations." IPACO works in English and in French.
The authors take time to define such terms as digital photography; metadata; and authentic original
photograph. Existing tools are reviewed and compression signatures are discussed. "IPACO provides a set of specific authentication functionality, which are divided into two parts..." Firstly, check all associated tags and markers. Secondly, comparison with a technical database of cameras.
It is clear that "...one photo of a scene will not be able to provide all the information contained on the original scene..." Also, "...very quick movements may not be detected on a video, because of the limitations in temporal resolution."
These include such things as angular measurements; and distance assessment. An example analysis is given, namely the Chambley case of 2007. The image shows one dark, oval shaped object, in a photograph showing a number of balloons. The analysis suggested that it was "...probably a child's balloon."
IPACO's dedicated analysis tools:
These include "quick detection of lens flares"; "detection of a suspended thread;" 'detection of a Chinese lantern." Example photographs and analysis are given for each of these.
This is an excellent, illustrated, comprehensive technical guide to authentication and analysis of UAP photography/videos. For the full paper click here. For more on IPACO and its services click here.